Guidelines for ToBI Labelling

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The ToBI Annotation Conventions
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    5. References

    Beckman, Mary E., and Janet B. Pierrehumbert. (1986) Intonational Structure in Japanese and English, Phonology Yearbook 3, 255-309.

    Bolinger, D. (1972) Accent is predictable (if you're a mind reader). Language 48, 633-644.

    Brown G., K. Currie, and J. Kenworthy (1980) Questions of Intonation. Croom Helm.

    Campbell, W. (1992) Prosodic encoding of English speech. In Proceedings of the 1992 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Banff, Canada, 663-666.

    Grosz, B., and J. Hirschberg (1992) Some intonational characteristics of discourse structure. In Proceedings of the 1992 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Banff, Canada, 429-432.

    Hirschberg, J. (1993) Pitch accent in context: Predicting intonational prominence from text. Artificial Intelligence, 63(1-2).

    Hirschberg, J., and J. Pierrehumbert (1986) The intonational structuring of discourse. In Proceedings of the 24th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, New York, NY, 136-144.

    Hirschberg, J., and G. Ward (1992) The influence of pitch range, duration, amplitude and spectral features on the interpretation of the rise-fall-rise intonation contour in English. Journal of Phonetics, Vol 20, Number 2, 241-251.

    Ladd, D. R. (1980) The Structure of Intonational Meaning: Evidence from English. Indiana University Press.

    Ladd, D. R. (1983) Phonological features of intonational peaks. Language 59, 721-759.

    Nakajima, S., and J. Allen (1992) Prosody as a cue for discourse structure. In Proceedings of the 1992 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Banff, Canada, 425-428.

    Nespor, M. and I. Vogel (1986) Prosodic Phonology. Foris Publications.

    Pierrehumbert, J., and J. Hirschberg (1990) The meaning of intonation contours in the interpretation of discourse. In P. R. Cohen, J. Morgan, and M. E. Pollack, eds., Plans and Intentions in Communication and Discourse (SDF Benchmark Series in Computational Linguistics), 271-311. MIT Press.

    Pierrehumbert, Janet B. and Shirley Steele. (1987) How Many Rise-Fall-Rise Contours? In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 3, 145-147. Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn.

    Price, P., Ostendorf, M., Shattuck-Hufnagel, S., and Fong, C. (1991) The use of prosody in syntactic disambiguation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 90, 2956-2970.

    Ross, K., M. Ostendorf, & S. Shattuck-Hufnagel (1992) Factors affecting pitch accent placement. In Proceedings of the 1992 Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Vol. 1, pp. 365-368.

    Sag, I., and M. Liberman (1975) The intonational disambiguation of indirect speech acts. In Papers from the 11th Regional Meeting, Chicago Linguistics Society, 487-497.

    Selkirk, E. (1981) On the nature of phonological representation. In T. Myers, J. Laver, and J. Anderson, eds., The Cognitive Representation of Speech, 379-378. North-Holland.

    Silverman, K. E. A., E. Blaauw, J. Spitz, and J. F. Pitrelli (1992) Towards using prosody in speech recognition/understanding systems: Differences between read and spontaneous speech. Proceedings of the Fifth DARPA Workshop on Speech and Natural Language, Harriman, NY, February.

    Silverman, K., and J. Pierrehumbert (1989) The timing of pre-nuclear high accents in English. In J. Kingston and M. E. Beckman, eds., Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: Between the Grammar and the Physics of Speech. 72-106. Cambridge University Press.

    Ward, G., and J. Hirschberg (1985) Implicating uncertainty: The pragmatics of fall-rise intonation. Language 61, 747-776.

    Woodbury, A. (1993) Against intonational phrases in Central Alaskan Yupik Eskimo. Presented at Linguistics Society of America Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA.

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